At some point in one's life, almost everyone has experienced some kind of burn. Whether its due to lengthy exposure to the sun, an accident while cooking, or even a chemical burn. Some burns are unfortunately more serious than others.
Many of you might already know about the degrees of burns, but for those of you not familiar, they include the following:
First Degree: Red skin, no blisters.
Second Degree: Blisters and thickened skin. This may include a burn of either a partial or full thickness of the skin.
Third Degree: Overall thickening of the affected skin with a white or grayish color.
Fourth Degree: The burn not only penetrates the dermal and epidermal layers but also reaches the tendons and bones of the victim.
There are also different types of burn injury causes. These include the following:
Thermal burns can arise from explosions, flame, or hot liquids.
Chemical burns are caused by strong acids of alkali substance and require special care to stop injury to skin.
Electrical burns are caused by exposure to electricity.
Radiological burns are caused by radiation and often require decontamination.
It is also important to remember to never add anything frozen to cool a burn. The placing of ice on the injury can result in tissue ischemia. Instead, cool burn with clean cold water for at least 10 minutes adn if water isn't available then a cool compress can be used a substitute.
Remember, never add anything frozen to cool of a burn. Placing ice on the injury can cause tissue ischemia. Instead, cool burns with clean cold water for at least 10 minutes. If water isn't available than a clean, cool compress can be used as a substitute.
The Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) Cardiology has indicated that the ethnicity of a neighborhood may determine the likelihood of receiving CPR or even having access to a AED and post cardiac arrest care.
The empirical research conducted an analysis of data from seven US cities including Birmingham, AL; Dallas-Fort Worth, TX; Pittsburgh, PA; Portland, OR; Seattle, WA; and Milwaukee, WI. The researcher also reviewed the demographic information from each of these cities. Over a 4-year period, the researchers identified 22,816 cases in which cardiac arrest occurred outside of a hospital. The research revealed that overall, 39.5% of those who experienced cardiac arrest outside of the hospital received bystander CPR.
However, the research also noted that rates of bystander CPR were 43.0% in white neighborhoods as compared to 18.0% in black neighborhoods. In addition, the use of an AED occurred more often in white neighborhoods. For example, in white neighborhoods, 4.5% of cardiac arrest victims received bystander defibrillation as opposed to .09% in black neighborhoods. Unfortunately, the research recognized that the opportunities for survival were greatly reduced in black neighborhoods. Further, the researchers also suggested that treatment administered by bystanders and survival experienced during post-cardiac arrest care are much lower in neighborhoods with a higher percentage of black residents.
Starks MA, Schmicker RH, Peterson ED, et al. Association of neighborhood demographics with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treatment and outcomes: where you live may matter[published online August 30, 2017]. JAMA Cardiol. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2017.2671
Effective January 31, 2019, new American Heart Association feedback guidelines will require real time feedback for students when working with Adult simulations. Compression depth, rate and chest recoil will all be monitored not only by the instructor, but by a CPR training feedback device as well.
Specific and targeted feedback is essential to student's understanding and comprehension of CPR processes when faced with a cardiac emergency. Through the incorporation of feedback in adult CPR courses the quality and consistency of training can help increase the chance of a successful outcome when CPR is actually performed. However, the ultimate goal is to help students master the critical skills and reduce the time between training and demonstration of competence in a training environment.
CPR feedback devices will monitor various items during the training process. First, a metronome will provide a rate to follow during CPR practices, however, this does not give directive feedback on the actual performance of the student. In order to comply with the new requirements, the feedback devices must measure and and provide rel-time audio and/or visual feedback on compression rate and depth. This will allow the student to make self-corrections or even validate their skills or validate their level of skill performance during training.
So here in Texas we have lots of different types of wildlife including snakes both poisonous and non-poisonous. It's important to know what and what not to do when encountering a poisonous snake in the unfortunate case that you are bit. First, in the event that you are bit and do have cell or phone service, call 9-1-1. This is vital especially if the area begins to change color, begins to swell or is painful. Most emergency rooms carry antivenom medication which will be beneficial.
If possible, take these steps while waiting for medical help:
1. Remain calm and move beyond the snake's striking distance.
2. Remove all jewelry and tight clothing in case of swelling.
3. Position yourself, if possible, so that the bite is at or below the level of your heart.
4. Clean the wound but don't flush it with water. Cover it with a clean, dry dressing.
DO NOT use a tourniquet or apply ice. DO NOT cut the wound or attempt to remove the venom. Try to remember the color of the snake and the shape of the head as they will allow healthcare providers to provide the most effective treatment.
While most snake bites occur on the extremities, after a bite from a poisonous snake there is often severe burning pain at the site within 15-30 minutes. The symptoms may also include swelling and bruising at the wound which may proceed all the way up the arm or leg. Other symptoms include nausea and a general sense of weakness as well as an odd taste in the mouth. Some snakes such as coral snakes have toxins which may cause tingling, difficulty speaking and weakness.
Be safe and always remember to call 9-1-1 or your nearest emergency provider.
Are you a river or climbing guide, a summer camp counselor or do you facilitate remote-area recreation activities? If so, then training in wilderness emergency care is a must.
Our Wilderness First Aid (WFA) course encompasses a completely different type of first aid training. The course considers the possible limited access to medial and first aid supplies and treatments, exposure to outdoor elements including excessive heat as well as cold and frigid conditions, and lengthy EMS response times.
A focus of the Wilderness First Aid (WFA) course is enabling participants to provide extended medical care treatments while in remote location. This class is designed for individuals who are not healthcare providers or professional rescuers but desire or are required to be certified in wilderness first aid knowledge and skills. For example, students learn how to prioritize injuries as well as hands-on treatment for basic wounds, heat and cold injuries, common injuries such as sprains, strains and abrasions to burns, dislocations, fractures and spinal injuries. Class participants will also learn how to assemble their own individual first aid kit (FAK).
The pre-requisites for the Wilderness First Aid (WFA) course are that the participants be age 18 and up, be in good health and overall fitness, and be capable of communicating with course leaders and other participants. CPR certification is also required prior to this course. Those class participants whom have CPR certification must show valid certification to receive a waiver. If you need CPR, this will be offered.
Our Wilderness First Aid (WFA) course is a two day course and is offered at Help-A-Heart CPR at various times throughout the year. For more information email us at email@example.com or call us at 210-380-5344. Remember to never enter the wilderness without first being prepared!
The use of the tourniquet in medical emergencies is most often necessary with uncontrollable bleeding. While it is possible to suffer uncontrollable bleeding from smaller wounds; victims who bleed out often do so because they have cut an artery. You will often know that you have cut an artery as you will view blood spurting and the blood will be bright red. Other signs of uncontrolled bleeding include a victim that may be unconscious, or a full or partial amputation. Unfortunately, a person with a severed artery can often die in 2-3 minutes.
So what do you do? The first thing that you want to to is ensure that the scene is safe. Next, call 911 and find the wound and apply direct pressure. The next step is to apply a dressing and continue to press. Lastly, the application of the tourniquet requires the first responder to WRAP the tourniquet, WIND the tourniquet, SECURE the tourniquet, and write the TIME the tourniquet was applied on the tourniquet itself.
You might not have a tourniquet available but if you do, tie it off between the blood flow and the exit wound. If the wound happens to be too large to control with a tourniquet then grab a clean cloth or hemostatic gauze and pack the wound and apply pressure.
Here at Help-A-Heart CPR, we now offer an Advanced Bleeding Control certification class. This class will provide the students with the tools and knowledge to determine when and how to manage both controllable and uncontrollable bleeding both with and without a tourniquet.
Heat stroke is a form of heat illness often resulting in a potentially life threatening event. Heat stroke occurs when a person's body core temperature increases to a level that is well above the "safe level" within the body's internal temperature range. Initial signs of heat stroke often include heat cramps and if precautions are not made to cool off and rehydrate at this point, the more severe stage of heat illness and heat exhaustion, can occur.
So what can we do as treatment if one is suffering from heat stroke? First. immediately seek emergency medical care. While awaiting emergency medical services, try to cool the person down while also doing one or all of the following:
Stay safe this summer and if you suspect that you or a loved one is suffering from heatstroke, immediately seek emergency care.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment following submersion or immersion in fluid. Drowning is the fourth leading cause of accidental death in the United States. There is an estimate 9,000 causalities and 80,000 near drowning accidents annually. Approximately, 40% of the drowning accidents are related to children below 4 years of age. Drowning is often associated with the following: inability to swim, diving injuries, swimming while intoxicated with alcohol, hypothermia, and fatigue.
It is important to grab a flotation device as rescuing a victim of drowning can be extremely dangerous as victims will grab anything to stay afloat and the rescuer can inadvertently drown in a rescue attempt. When removing the victim from the water, it is important to check the patency of airway and turn patient to lateral side allowing the water to clear out from the upper airway while removing any mud, dentures etc. Since drowning can result in hypoxemia, immediate attention must be given to calling 911 and administering mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if the victim does not have a pulse. It is also critical to wrap the individual in a warming blanket if the temperature is low and if the victim is still not revived continue CPR until help arrives.
So stay safe this summer and if having a pool party or going to the lake or river, make sure that someone is monitoring the kids and those that can't swim. If something happens, call 911 and if the victim doesn't have a pulse then begin CPR.
Smeltzer, S., Bare B., Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing 10th Edition, 2008, Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
ACLS stands for Advanced Cardiac Life Support. The ACLS certification course covers various procedures such as the initiation of IV access, reading and transcribing electrocardiograms and the administration of emergency drugs such as epinephrine, atropine, adenosine, and amiodarone.
During the ACLS class, students will discuss the following topics:
A great number of our students call or email inquiring whether the BLS class is the class that they need. So here is a short breakdown of what BLS means and who this class is intended for.
With the extensive number of professions, work environments, and various state licensing requirements, it can be a strenuous task determining what class you need to take. BLS stands for "Basic Life Support" and is the the basic CPR course for the majority of healthcare providers. This might include emergency room staff to in-home adult caregivers. Although these environment might be quite differed, the CPR process that we cover in the BLS class are applicable to all healthcare environments. In the BLS class we review the CPR skills of compressions, breathing, and the use of the AED. We cover both single rescuer as well as multi-rescuer scenarios. Changes to these procedures that are not covered in the lay rescuer CPR training include the administration of pulse checks, the use of bag valve masks, (BVM's), CPR with the use of an advanced airway, and addressing the various issues that occur in team dynamics such as closed looped communication, leadership, and roles and responsibilities.
The BLS class allows the student to develop their skills in an environment that promotes an effective review, reinforcement, and when required modification. So whether your renewing your BLS CPR certification or taking the BLS CPR for the very first time, our BLS Provider class will help you develop the confidence to administer CPR and use the AED effectively.
Tracy A. Jones is an American Heart Association Master Program Trainer, Instructor, & AHA Faculty Member located in San Antonio, Texas.